The Surrender of Thanksgiving

Grabbed by Gratitude

It stopped me in my tracks. Twice. In the same morning even. What was it? Thankfulness. The first time, a song provoked it, and the second time, a story in an upcoming film about a changed life connected to my heart. I felt genuinely thankful, particularly for my wife and children. Lyrics and stories have a way of moving and stirring our emotions.

Hooray for Word Studies: Εὐχαριστέω

Bible readers find the theme of thankfulness throughout the pages of Scripture. In the New Testament, the verb εὐχαριστέω primarily conveys the act of expressing

. . . appreciation for benefits or blessings, give thanks, express thanks, render/return thanks (BDAG).

It is used 37 times in the New Testament. The occasions for these usages vary: (1) regarding provisions from God (Matt. 15:36), (2) in the Lord’s Supper (Mark 14:23; Luke 22:19), (3) in reference to answered prayer (Luke 17:16; John 11:41), (4) obligatory thanksgiving (Luke 18:11; Rom. 16:4), (5) thanksgiving for NOT participating in something (1 Cor. 1:14), but most often, (6) it communicates thankfulness about the fellowship of believers (Eph. 1:16; Phil. 1:3; 1 Thess. 1:2).

Spontaneous or Deliberate Thankfulness?

However, the Apostle Paul fashioned the word in a unique way in 1 Thessalonians 5:18. He issued it as a command:

. . . give thanks in all circumstances; for this is the will of God in Christ Jesus for you.

This is the one and only use in the New Testament of the imperative form—εὐχαριστεῖτε. “Give thanks; appreciate; surrender thanksgiving.” But isn’t thankfulness better when it’s spontaneous? Is thankfulness genuinely thankfulness when it is commanded? I mean how many “You-should-be-thankful-s” are chronicled in the history of parenthood, right?!?! Our experience of the feeling of thankfulness is often unplanned, which may cause one to ask, “How does one get better at such a command? Do I simply try harder to feel thankful?”

This command is interesting to me, especially in light of the holiday anticipation building as we enter Thanksgiving season. As I experienced a surge of thankfulness this morning about my family, provoked by song and story and genuinely enjoying how I felt, I wondered if there is yet a deeper experience of thankfulness available . . . something more consistent, longer-lasting, sustainable, solid. Is thankfulness something that must come from outside of me; is it out of my control; a dormant emotion only stirred by some kind of external stimulus? Or is it something to which I have constant access, an affection internal and awake, and able to be wielded, controlled, surrendered, and given? If the latter, then where may I find such an endless reservoir of gratitude?

The Surrender of Thanksgiving: Exposition of 1 Thessalonians 5:18

In 1 Thessalonians 5:18, God reveals some things to us about giving thanks that cause pause. First, he qualifies the command “Give thanks” with a prepositional phrase that describes the circumstances during which we should obey it—in all circumstances. Wait, what? Literally, the translation is “give thanks in any and every, or in every respect or way.” Most Bible translations have adapted the English to read, “in all circumstances.” We are commanded to give thanks for any one circumstance that may come at us from the sum total of all circumstances. In other words, E-V-E-R-Y-T-H-I-N-G. Yikes.

Thanksgiving Commanded by God

Remember, a command implies that God has or is able to supply you with the necessary resources to obey the command. Notice also that the circumstances are not commanded to make people thankful, which would be worded like, “Circumstances, go and cause thankfulness among the people.” Rather, the readers (like you and me) are commanded to give thanks while living under varied circumstances. The command implies that the believer is in possession of thankfulness and then must choose to give it. Now, I think all of us can easily imagine turning over thanks for the joyous moments—straight A’s, making the team, winning the game (Go Lady Norsemen, btw), graduating, getting married, having the baby, going on vacation, church growth, career advancement, and the list could go on and on.

However, are we really to turn over thanks when we fail the class, when we don’t make the team, when we lose the big game, when circumstances delay graduation, when the boyfriend/girlfriend bails, when finances crumble, when the consequences of one bad decision keep piling up, when a child or a parent gets sick or dies, when the marriage fails, when the church splits, when the career tanks, and on and on? Does God really expect me to give him thanks in all circumstances?

Yes. Maybe the surrender of our thanks looks a little broken sometimes, but this is the command. He wants our thanks in any and every circumstance. Biblical thanksgiving seems to be the turning over of something that is both provoked and supplied by God again and again, rather than some uncontrollable emotion that suddenly sweeps over you by positive, external, spontaneous provocation. The giving of thanks is a matter of relationship between you and God. You can choose to give it or not to give it to God.

Thanksgiving in the Fullness of God

Back to the Bible in 1 Thessalonians 5:18. The next sentence offers an explanation for the command to give thanks in all circumstances, “for this is the will of God in Christ Jesus for you.” A similar statement follows Paul’s command to be filled or controlled by the Spirit in Ephesians 5:18–20,

. . . giving thanks always and for everything to God the Father in name of our Lord Jesus Christ.

In that passage, the giving of thanks is evidenced in the life of the believer who is yielding to the Spirit’s control. There again, as in 1 Thessalonians, the circumstances in which we give thanks are broad—always and for everything. In 1 Thessalonians 5:18, Paul explains that this always-giving-thanks-in-all-circumstances is God’s will. Comparing this to Ephesians 5:18, we may say that it is the Spirit’s aim.

I see here both the external motivation and the internal capability—both provided by God. The command to give thanks is the external word that comes from God to us, and that word is met in the believer with the aim of the Spirit, who dwells within and who aims to transform the believer into one who turns over thanks to God in all circumstances—making him or her thankful. In this way, the Christian is prompted both externally and internally to give thanks. The uniqueness of the Christian understanding of thanksgiving is that seemingly random circumstances are not in the driver’s seat, but rather our experience and relationship with God while living under a variety of circumstances.

Thanksgiving Under the Influence of Christ

Finally, the phrase “the will of God” is modified by two prepositional phrases: (1) in Christ Jesus and (2) for you all. What do these mean? Paul commonly employs the phrase “in Christ” or “in Christ Jesus,” and what he seems to mean by it is the idea of “under the control of, under the influence of, or in close association with” (BDAG, 327–28).

Let me expand that a bit. We are commanded to give thanks in all circumstances because this is the will of God for people under the influence of the person and work of Jesus Christ. Something so influential, at the soul-level, has happened in Jesus Christ for believers rendering them capable of fulfilling God’s will and command to give thanks in all circumstances. What happened? His death and resurrection happened. In other words, Christ’s gospel is the key to your ability to obey the will of God by giving thanks in all circumstances—good or bad, hopeful or despairing. You function in every circumstance with death-defeating, eternally-securing, resurrection-powered love.

Thanksgiving Surrendered to God

Now, let’s get real for a minute. The influence of the resurrection of Christ moves the believer to give thanks to God in painful circumstances. It is truly a surrender of thanks. These surrenders surface on the battlefield of the soul against the sinful nature that longs to withhold thanks from God. This is why Romans 8:26 says,

Likewise the Spirit helps us in our weakness. For we do not know what to pray for as we ought, but the Spirit himself intercedes for us with groanings too deep for words.

Later on during the same day that I felt thankful for my family, I received a call from a friend that makes a pastor’s heart shudder and ask, “Why God?” And I, of course, don’t have that answer. Yet, I know that the greatest power and love on heaven and earth is available to those who call on the name of Jesus. When you or I see the hurting person give thanks in all circumstances, we witness that power and love on display. We witness firsthand the external command of God and the internal working of the gospel by the Spirit uniting to produce a thankful believer.

 

Recapturing the Great Commission: Part Two

Exciting Opportunities at West Lisbon

We have an exciting month ahead of us at West Lisbon Church in the area of World Missions. This Sunday, March 12th at noon, our Destination: Spain and REACH Mission Teams will host a Missions Auction & Breakfast to raise financial and prayer support. Find out more here.

Additionally, the WLC Missions Committee will host our annual Missions Conference on March 18–19th. Our guest speaker for the weekend is Dr. Greg Parsons. Greg is the current Director of Global Connections at Frontier Ventures. Frontier describes itself as

We are a community of dreamers and doers who long to see Jesus worshipped in the earth’s darkest corners.

Pretty awesome. Greg is also engaged in the leadership of the Perspectives on the World Christian Movement. If this guy doesn’t fan the flame of world missions in your soul . . . you may want to check your pulse!! Find out more here.

In light of all of these exciting, learning, and serving experiences, I thought that I would focus the February and March Messenger articles on the Great Commission of Matthew 28:16–20. In this month’s edition, we’ll take a look at the words of Jesus’ commission.

Matthew 28:18–20 (ESV)

And Jesus came and said to them, “All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you. And behold, I am with you always, to the end of the age.”

The Words of the Great Commission

Last month, we looked at the setting of the commission in verses 16–17, and we discovered first that the people of the commission are described as the eleven, second that the place of the commission is described as the mountain in Galilee, and third that the faith of the commissioned is described as “little” or mixed with doubt. The Lord would commission this group knowing their “little faith.” Today, I think we’ll see why he could and would commission an imperfect group of eleven to begin his global mission. Now, let’s move our attention to the words of the commission spoken by the resurrected Lord Jesus Christ.
Authority

Authority

First, Jesus spoke of his authority. Verse 18 reveals two things about this authority: (1) It is total in scope, and (2) it is legitimate in nature. The totality of the scope of Jesus’ authority is expressed by the word “all” and by the phrase “in heaven and on earth.” The term “all” is used again with “authority” in 1 Corinthians 15:54 (NET), “Then comes the end, when he hands over the kingdom to God the Father, when he has brought to an end all rule and all authority and power.” This speaks of the future time when Jesus has nullified all other bearers of ruling authority. The little word “all” carries a lot of theological weight! Think totality—any, every, each level or part. All authority. While “in heaven and on earth” implies the universal scope of Jesus’ authority, it particularly emphasizes the authority Jesus possesses in every realm—both heavenly and earthly, over the spiritual realm and the natural realm. Jonathan Pennington writes in his book Heaven and Earth in the Gospel of Matthew,

He has achieved authority in both realms and his followers can now live in hope for his heavenly authority to one day be manifested throughout the earth . . . This has been inaugurated by Jesus’ resurrection and will be consummated at his Parousia [second coming]. Additionally, Jesus’ authority in both heavenly and earthly realms now transforms the disciples’ mission. Originally, Jesus endowed his disciples with his authority and sent them to preach the kingdom of heaven only to true people of the land of Israel (10:5–7). After the resurrection, they are re-commissioned to preach to all nations (205).

With the resurrection from the dead, the scope of Jesus’ authority expanded not only over the whole creation but across both heavenly and earthly realms.

His authority is not only total in scope, but it is also legitimate in nature. Our world is full of people claiming to have authority and power, but is it legitimate? At the 2017 Moody Founder’s Week, Dr. Tony Evans shared a funny story about legitimate and illegitimate authority. When he was chaplain with the Dallas Cowboys, he had special access and privileges because of his rights and position as chaplain. I believe it was his son that wanted to go with him to a game one day. Dr. Evans explained to his son that if he traveled with him in his car, then he could get special parking, privileged access, reserved seating, so on and so forth; however, if he decided to travel to the game on his own, he wouldn’t benefit from any of his father’s legitimate authority. You see, it was attached to his name and person, not to his son’s name and person. This reminds the reader of Daniel 7:13–14 (ESV), which reads,

I saw in the night visions, and behold, with the clouds of heaven there came one like a son of man, and he came to the Ancient of Days and was presented before him. And to him was given dominion and glory and a kingdom, that all peoples, nations, and languages should serve him; his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom one that shall not be destroyed.

The Greek term is ἐξουσία (ex-zoo-sia), and in this context it means “the right to control or command, absolute power, warrant.” By virtue of his identity as the beloved Son and his finished and faithful work in his death and resurrection, he possesses legitimate authority.
Commission

Commission

Second, Jesus gave his commission. “Therefore” connects the scope and nature of Jesus’ authority to the commission that he will give to his disciples. The primary command “Go . . . make” is an urgent one. We find a similar phrase with similar urgency in Matthew 2:13–14 (NET),

After they had gone, an angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream and said, “Get up, take the child and his mother and flee to Egypt, and stay there until I tell you, for Herod is going to look for the child to kill him.” Then he got up, took the child and his mother during the night, and went to Egypt.

The angel’s command to Joseph employs the same grammatical urgency Jesus used in his commission—“Go, hurry, now, don’t delay—and make disciples!” Too often, we hear the commission like this, “As you go, make disciples,” but this misses the grammatical urgency Jesus intentionally puts into his commission. They are to urgently make “disciples.” Disciples are learners of Jesus. Don’t forget that Jesus is commissioning imperfect disciples to go and make more disciples, so that the task of disciple-making is a task every Christian shares. As Jonathan Pennington noted in the quote above, the mission expanded beyond Israel to “all nations” because Jesus has “all authority.” Acts 1:8 describes the commission as a local, national, and global witness to the person and work of Jesus Christ. We are to make disciples among the familiar and among the unfamiliar, among the near and the far, among those like us and among those unlike us.

Two participles describe the activity of disciple-making: baptizing and teaching. The term “baptize” by itself implies dipping or immersing. It was used in the dyeing of garments, so that when a white garment was “baptized” into a dye, it came out of the dye changed and transformed. A broad study in the New Testament reveals that Christian baptism has a threefold nature. First, it is confessional. Even here in Jesus’ commission, we see the implied confession of the Trinity—there is one God who eternally exists as three persons: Father, Son, and Spirit. Notice that it isn’t “names,” but “name” in verse 19. A baptized disciple confesses the Trinity and the person and work of Jesus Christ, because his death and resurrection is symbolized in the immersion. Second, baptism is transformational. It is an act of public repentance from the old life of sin, and the public pledge of a new, sanctified life. Third, baptism is communal. The baptized disciple expresses his or her desire to belong to the body of believers, and the body of believers acknowledges the confession of the baptized and accepts him or her into their community.

Teaching refers to instruction in both informal and formal settings. Remember, Jesus taught in small groups, in crowds, in parables, while traveling, while eating, while debating, while caring for the sick and oppressed. His settings were varied, but he was always teaching the twelve. Specifically, the disciples were charged to make disciples, teaching them to observe all that Jesus had commanded them. The term “observe” can mean “to persist in obedience”or to keep and guard. With all the language of heaven and earth and men being entrusted to keep and guard something once again, my mind travels back to the creation of the heavens and the earth, and man placed in the garden of Eden to cultivate it and to keep it. Jesus has established a new humanity with a new commission. Disciple-makers must make disciples who obey and keep the commandments of Jesus, and we must do it in such a way that disciples know how to make disciple.
Presence

Presence

Finally, Jesus spoke of presence. The Gospel of Matthew began,

This all happened so that what was spoken by the Lord through the prophet would be fulfilled: “Look! The virgin will conceive and bear a son, and they will call him Emmanuel,’ which means ‘God with us” (Matthew 1:22–23 NET).

It ends with a great commission followed with the assurance of the Commissioner’s presence, “And behold, I am with you always, to the end of the age.” The term “always” literally reads “all the days” or “the whole of every day.” We may understand this as his moment by moment presence accompanying us in the mission. Yet, it is also a presence that lasts until the consummation of the age. Jesus is guiding and directing his disciples in his mission by his legitimate authority in every moment all the way until we can all say: “Mission Accomplished!” And so, he forever connects his commission of the church in history to the end of the age. Ecclesiology and eschatology are connected. The mission now and his return later are in relationship.

Recapture the Great Commission

Therefore, given Jesus’ total and legitimate authority, his clear and urgent commission, and his momentary and enduring presence, are you encouraged to go and make disciples? You lack nothing that is needed to participate in the Great Commission. So what holds you back from making disciples? Seriously, try to answer that question. Is it an authority problem? Is it a problem with the instructions? Is it a need for the assurance of Jesus’ presence? He has answered all of these things for us. Are you worried that you have little faith? He still commissions you, as he did his disciples. He equips you with the Holy Spirit. Maybe you feel that you missed out on discipleship of your own. I’ve met many Christians who have felt this way. If you realize this need, then go get discipled! If you haven’t been baptized, then do it. If you need to be taught what Jesus taught, then find someone willing to teach you. Pray for God to provide this person or group.

Many times, however, the problem that causes us not to participate in disciple-making is that we simply don’t want to make disciples. Such an investment interrupts our “status quo” living. Walking alongside people in their week-to-week with the intent of helping them follow Jesus to a point that they themselves are then able to make disciples can be messy business. It can take a long time, and it can be frustrating— just think of how patient Jesus was when his disciples worried about bread that they forgot . . . loaves and fishes anyone?! I think sometimes too we feel that disciple-making requires more or additional . . . one more thing that I don’t have time for . . . like reading this blog! But perhaps, disciple-making doesn’t require additional, maybe it requires an intentional rethinking of your week. I am guessing that everyone reading this eats food, sometimes even three times a day. Why not intentionally pick out some weekly meals that you’re going to share with someone who needs to learn the way of Jesus? You’re already eating, just be intentional. Brothers and sisters, Jesus commissioned us . . . all of us . . . if we love him, then we’ve got to go. Let’s figure it out together. I am teaching a Sunday School Class right now at West Lisbon called Discipleship with Jesus and the Apostles on Sunday mornings at 9am. We are talking about this very topic. Come and join us. It’s one way to get started. Take advantage of some of the other opportunities coming up at WLC!

Recapturing the Great Commission: Part One

Great Commission

Exciting Opportunities at West Lisbon

We have an exciting two months ahead of us at West Lisbon Church in the area of World Missions. This Sunday evening, February 12th at 6pm, Mark and Stephanie Dodrill will be with us at Family Mission Fellowship to share about Youth for Christ’s work in Barcelona, Spain and about their home assignment. It is also exciting because West Lisbon is sending a team to work with Mark and Stephanie in Spain this summer! By the way, there is still one spot available on the Destination: Spain team.

Then in March, the Missions Committee will host our annual Missions Conference on March 18–19th. Our guest speaker for the weekend is Dr. Greg Parsons. Greg is the current Director of Global Connections at Frontier Ventures. Frontier describes itself in this way:

We are a community of dreamers and doers who long to see Jesus worshipped in the earth’s darkest corners.

Pretty awesome. Greg is also engaged in the leadership of the Perspectives on the World Christian Movement. If this guy doesn’t fan the flame of world missions in your soul . . . you may want to check your pulse!!

In light of all of these exciting learning and serving experiences before us, I thought that I would spend the next two Messenger articles on the Great Commission of Matthew 28:16–20. In this month’s edition, we’ll examine the setting of Jesus’ commission. Next month, we’ll take a look at the words of Jesus’ commission.

Matthew 28:16–17 (ESV)

Now the eleven disciples went to Galilee, to the mountain to which Jesus had directed them. And when they saw him they worshiped him, but some doubted.

The Setting of the Great Commission

“The Great Commission” as a title for Matthew 28:16–20 may have its origin in the first decade of the 1900s. It may have first appeared as a title for this text in the Scofield Reference Bible of 1909. Since then, it has enjoyed a place of prominence among the commissioning passages of the New Testament (e.g., Luke 24:44–49; Acts 1:8). Let’s take a look at the setting of the commission that precedes the words of the commission.

First, the people of the commission are described. The description of the group shocks the reader of Matthew’s commission passage. It is the “eleven.” The absence of one of the twelve recalls the evil and fall of Judas—one who had spent so much time with Jesus, betrayed him and was lost. We are soberly reminded by the word “eleven” that simply being present and in the crowd associated with Jesus does not correlate to genuine loyalty and discipleship. This does not mean—as some falsely presume—that the commission was ONLY for the eleven. Remember, Matthew wrote his Gospel with a Christian community in mind, who would receive and act upon his retelling of the life and work of Jesus Christ. The commission began with the eleven, but the text assumes that the church of all ages will take up this cause.

Second, the place of the commission is described. Jesus had told them that he himself would go ahead of them and meet them in Galilee after he was resurrected (Matthew 26:30–32; 28:10). After the Passover festival had finished, the disciples appeared to have returned home to Galilee to meet Jesus (see also John 20:26–21:14). As the time for his ascension drew near, it seems that they had returned to Jerusalem (Acts 1:1–11). Perhaps more significant, Matthew mentions that their meeting took place on “the mountain to which Jesus had directed them.” Mountaintop-experiences are an important theme in the Gospel of Matthew. Consider all that happened on mountains:

  • Temptation (4:8)
  • Teaching—Sermon on the Mount (5:1ff)
  • Prayer (14:23)
  • Healing (15:29)
  • Transfiguration (17:1, 9)
  • Triumphal Entry Prep (21:1)
  • Teaching—Olivet Discourse (24:3)

And now, Jesus calls his eleven disciples to the mountain for their commissioning.

Lastly, the faith of the commissioned is described. Notice that Matthew describes the presence of both worship AND doubt. It helps to explore this concept within Matthew’s gospel to find out what he means by this. For example, James seems to teach that there is a sense in which faith and doubt cannot coexist (e.g., 1:6–8). Jude, however, teaches us to be merciful to doubters (v. 22). Paul in Romans warns about doubts with regard to conscious and ethical decisions (14:23). So, context seems to be key. Clearly, doubt is a danger to the spiritual life if it persists, pervades, and is permanent; however, don’t we all struggle with some degree of doubt? I think this is where Matthew’s “theology” of doubt is helpful to us. Imagine the relationship of faith and doubt in Matthew’s gospel like a cup, where the empty space represents “Doubt” and the filled space represents “Faith”:


clipart of an almost empty glass of water

Throughout the Gospel of Matthew is what Grant Osborne calls the motif of “little faith.” Check out 6:30; 8:26; 14:31; 16:8. I tend to agree with Osborne that what is being described here in Matthew 28:17 by the concept of doubt in the midst of worship is simply another way of describing the theme of “little faith” that has been a regular description of Jesus’ disciples throughout the book. Put simply, their faith isn’t mature yet. They have faith, but it’s small. It is largely an immature faith at this point. The Holy Spirit and their witnessing will help to grow their faith, so that in time their faith may look something like this:

clipart of an almost empty glass of water

I’m not sure that doubt is ever totally eliminated from the spiritual life. James, Paul, and Jude exhort us about doubt for exactly this reason. However, I do think that faith and trust in God grows throughout the spiritual life. But come back with me to the setting of Jesus’ commissioning in Matthew 28:17. Is it really possible that the resurrected Jesus is about to entrust the expansion of his kingdom and the establishment of his church to eleven or so worshippers who are having doubts? Well, that’s certainly what the text says, isn’t it?

What does that mean for you? Have you been thinking that all of your doubts have to be gone before you effectively serve Jesus? Do you feel that you have to possess all of the answers before you can be sent to make disciples? Jesus certainly didn’t expect this of his original eleven. Why do you think he expects it of you? Fellow Christian, don’t allow your “little faith” to cause you to do “little disciple-making.” As we see in the book of Acts, the experience of the Holy Spirit’s ministry as we witness and make disciples increases our faith. Part of the excitement and fun of making disciples is becoming learners of Jesus together. I hope you’ll put your little faith to work in the Great Commission. Go on; step out of the boat and into the Great Commission! Next time, we’ll see that Jesus tells us everything our little faith needs to thrive in Christ’s commission.

The Epistle of James: Godly Living in an Ungodly World

Epistle of James

Epistle of James: Godly Living in an Ungodly World

On Sunday, we concluded our 5-month study of the Epistle of James. What a challenging message! We explored various themes for Godly Living in an Ungodly World. Here, I am providing the title to each sermon, and the basic outline that accompanied each sermon. I hope you are able to use this in your personal Bible study in James and perhaps as you have opportunities to lead others in the study of this book of the Bible.

Epistle of James: Sermon Series Titles and Outline

Introduction: Explore Godly Living in an Ungodly World (1:1) 
  • The Author: James, the brother of Jesus Christ
  • The Date & Place of Writing: Mid-forties A.D. from Palestine
  • The Setting in Life: The difficulties, persecution, economic oppression, and community disharmony of Palestinian and scattered Jewish Christians in the 1st century Roman world.
  • The Form & Content of the Letter: The letter appears to be an edition of James’ own sermons covering such themes as suffering, wisdom, regeneration, a primitive Christology and eschatology echoing the teachings and sayings of Jesus himself, poverty & wealth, the tongue, and the relationship of law, grace, faith, and works of charity. James’ use of “my brothers” or “brothers” is a notable feature and guide throughout the letter.
The Godly Person Endures Tests Joyfully for Maturity (1:2–4).
  • Don’t Divert, but Direct Your Thinking During Tests (1:2–3).
  • Don’t Divert, But Develop Your Endurance During Tests (1:4).
The Godly Person Stays on Track to Maturity by Praying for Wisdom in Testing (1:5–8).
  • Two Problems May Derail Maturing Faith in Testing (1:5a, 6b–8).
  • Two Solutions Will Keep You on Track to Maturing Faith in Testing (1:5b–6a).
The Godly Person Calculates Life by Eternal, Not Temporal, Wealth (1:9–11).
  • The Poor Christian Must Look for Godly Glory Because of Eternal Renewal (1:9, 11).
  • The Rich Person Must Look for Godly Dependance Because of the Eternal Reversal (1:10–11).
The Godly Person Perseveres to Eternal Life through Testing by the New Birth (1:12–18).
  • Persevere to Eternal Life (1:12).
  • Persevere Through Internal Temptation (1:13–15).
  • Persevere by the Internal Transformation of the New Birth (1:16–18).
The Godly Person Heeds Wisdom’s Warning about Anger by Hospitably Hosting the Gospel (1:19–21).
  • Heed Wisdom’s Warning about Anger (1:19).
  • Hunger for God’s Justice Instead of Anger (1:20).
  • Hospitably Host the Regenerating Word for Transformation (1:21).
The Godly Person Perseveres Beyond Hearing to Doing the Word (1:22–25).
  • Beware Deception about the Regenerating Word (1:22).
  • Blessing Belongs to Those Who Persevere Beyond Hearing to Doing (1:23–25).
The Godly Person Awakes to Regenerate Religion (1:26–27).
  • Wake Up from Dead Religion (1:26).
  • Wake Up to Living Religion (1:27).
The Godly Person Pulverizes Partiality Out of His/Her Faith – Part 1 (2:1–7).
  • Heal Community Poverty (2:1–7).
    • Let Jesus Level You (2:1).
    • Obey Your Calling As a Good Judge (2:2–4).
    • Share God’s Burden for the Poor (2:5).
    • Evaluate Whose Side You’re On (2:6–7).
The Godly Person Pulverizes Partiality Out of His/Her Faith – Part 2 (2:8–13).
  • Heal Spiritual Poverty (2:8–13).
    • Live Under the Royal Law of Liberty (2:8–12).
    • Love Mercy More Than Strict Justice (2:13).
The Godly Person Has a Regenerate Faith That Extends Life (2:14–17).
  • Into Eternity (2:14).
  • To Others (2:15–16).
  • By Works (2:17).
The Godly Person Proves His/Her Faith Profession by Corresponding Works (2:18–26).
  • Close the Gap between Faith and Works (2:18).
  • Complete Your Faith (2:19–25).
  • Capture the Correlation (2:26).
The Godly Person Steers the Tongue to Arrive at Maturity by Limiting and Harnessing It (3:1–5a).
  • Limit Tongues That Teach (3:1–2).
  • Harness the Tongue’s Teaching Influence (3:3–5a).
The Godly Person Sparks a Revival of Words (3:5b–12).
  • Trade Hell’s Spark for Heaven’s Spark (3:5b–6).
  • Trade Hell’s Tongue for Heaven’s Tongue (3:7–12).
  • Trade Hell’s Heart for Heaven’s Heart (cf. 1:18, 21; Mt. 15:7–20).
The Godly Person Harvests Harmony with Heaven’s Wisdom (3:13–18).
  • Evidence Your Leadership (3:13).
  • Evict the Party Spirit (3:14–16).
  • Exchange for Heaven’s Wisdom (3:17).
The Godly Person Weeps over His Words Today for a Better Harvest Tomorrow (4:1–10).
  • Weep over Your Desires for War in the Congregation (4:1–3).
  • Weep Like an Adulterer Discovered by a Jealous Spouse (4:4–5).
  • Weep to Find Grace for a Better Harvest (4:6–10).
The Godly Person Places His Words Under God’s Authority (4:11–17).
  • Place Your Social Words Under God’s Authority (4:11–12).
  • Place Your Vocational Words Under God’s Authority (4:13–17).
The Godly Person B.A.N.K.S. on God’s Justice for the Oppressed (5:1–6).
  • Beware the Miseries of Wealth Gained by Exploitation (5:1–3).
  • Attend to the Cries of the Oppressed (5:4).
  • Neglect Luxury, Not Justice (5:5).
  • Keep the Lord Jesus in View (5:6).
The Godly Person Energizes Endurance in the Church by Elevating Faith in Christ’s Return (5:7–12).
  • Christ’s Return Energizes Perseverance of the Saints (5:7–8).
  • Christ’s Return Energizes Community Harmony (5:9).
  • Christ’s Return Energizes Ancient Hope (5:10–11).
  • Christ’s Return Energizes Daily Truthfulness (5:12)
The Godly Person Cares for the Condition of the Congregation (5:13–20 & Conclusion).
  • Cry Out with the Sufferer (5:13a).
  • Cheer with the Cheerful (5:13b).
  • Confess with the Sick (5:13c–16b).
  • Consider the Powerful Prophet (5:16c–18).
  • Call the Wanderer Home (5:19–20).

The Seven Spiritual Laws of the Harvest—Sow Peace to Harvest Peace

Harvest

These seven principles come from an article entitled “The Seven Laws of the Harvest” written by J. Hampton Keathley III. Find the full article at Bible.org.

  1. We Reap Only What We Sow.
  2. We Reap the Same in Kind As We Sow.
  3. We Reap in a Different Season Than We Sow.
  4. We Reap More Than We Sow.
  5. We Reap in Proportion to What We Sow.
  6. We Reap the Fullness of the Good Only If We Persevere, Because the Evil Comes to the Field on Its Own.
  7. We Cannot Change Last Year’s Harvest, But We Can Learn and Grow for This Year’s.

Who is wise and understanding among you? By his good conduct let him show his works in the meekness of wisdom. But if you have bitter jealousy and selfish ambition in your hearts, do not boast and be false to the truth. This is not the wisdom that comes down from above, but is earthly, unspiritual, demonic. For where jealousy and selfish ambition exist, there will be disorder and every vile practice. But the wisdom from above is first pure, then peaceable, gentle, open to reason, full of mercy and good fruits, impartial and sincere. And a harvest of righteousness is sown in peace by those who make peace.

(James 3:13–18 ESV)

Is the Church a Fasting People?

Now John’s disciples and the Pharisees were fasting. And people came and said to him, “Why do John’s disciples and the disciples of the Pharisees fast, but your disciples do not fast?” And Jesus said to them, “Can the wedding guests fast while the bridegroom is with them? As long as they have the bridegroom with them, they cannot fast. The days will come when the bridegroom is taken away from them, and then they will fast in that day (Mark 2:18–20 ESV).

Fasting. Just doesn’t sound all that fun does it? Not something you’re gonna invite your buddies into—“Hey guys, we’re going to do some fasting next week, want to join in?” Yeah right. I’ll take a rain check on that. Hand me my Big Mac, fries, and Coke! What is this fasting thing all about? Is it biblical? Should Christians do it? If so, how do we do it?

One of my favorite theological journals is the Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society (JETS). In the most recent volume, there is an article from Sigurd Grindheim, a professor of New Testament at Fjellhaug International University College in Oslo, Norway.  The article title is “Fasting That Is Pleasing to the Lord: A NT Theology of Fasting” [JETS, 58/4 (2015) 697–707]. Professor Grindheim addresses the passage above from Mark 2, and extends a challenge to traditional Christian thinking on the spiritual discipline of fasting.

His article seeks to discern whether the NT spiritual life calls for either exceptional or habitual fasting. The exceptional fasting approach is rare rather than routine, and attached to largely significant moments, decisions, or spiritual efforts in the will of God. The habitual fasting approach is routine rather than rare, and in so doing, prepares a person for those bigger moments needing discernment in the will of God. One may say that the exceptional approach is more impulsive, and the habitual approach is more preparatory. In saying this, I don’t mean anything necessary negative about one or the other. For one may say that being impulsive is negative because its reactionary, but another may say being habitual is negative because it is legalistic.

Professor Grindheim attempts to argue for a new kind of fasting, not merely for exceptional practice, but also at the level of motive. He describes Old Testament fasting as accompanying (1) prayer, (2) mourning, (3) humility, (4) repentance of sins, and (5) direction from the Lord (cf., 2 Sam. 12:16–23; Esth. 4:16; 1 Sam. 31:13; 1 Chron. 10:12; Ps. 35:13; 1 Kgs. 21:27–29; 1 Sam. 7:6; Jon. 3:5; Neh. 9:1; Judg. 20:26; Dan. 9:3). The only required fast of the OT accompanied the Day of Atonement (Lev. 23:27–32). Later on in the Judaism of Jesus’ day, the Jews are practicing the discipline more regularly as indicated by the very early Christian document called The Didache,

And let not your fastings be with the hypocrites, for they fast on the second and the fifth day of the week; but do ye keep your fast on the fourth and on the preparation (the sixth) day”(Didache 8:1 AFL-E).

Jesus himself references this regular practice of the Jews in his parable of the Pharisee and the tax collector in Luke 18:9–14.

Out of this regular practice flows the dismay of both the Pharisees and the disciples of John the Baptist when they approach Jesus in Mark chapter 2:18–20. In other words, they are asking Jesus why his disciples don’t fast twice a week like the rest of us? Most likely for both the Pharisees and the disciples of John the Baptist, they participated in regular fasting, which was motivated by eschatological and messianic hopes. So, their question to Jesus is not merely about religious practice but also an indirect inquiry about his identity. So as to say, “Have they stopped fasting because they believe you are the Messiah? Are you the Messiah?”

Grindheim writes,

Whereas the Old Testament (OT) devout were characterized by their longing for the presence of God, New Testament (NT) believers are characterized by their joy at his presence. OT believers were yearning to experience  God’s favor; NT believers rejoice that they always enjoy his favor through Jesus Christ (698).

He goes on to explain that Jesus would fulfill the Day of Atonement on his cross. Therefore, Jesus’ presence includes the complete forgiveness and removal of sin, so that his presence is marked by joy and exultation, not mourning or grief.

We can all agree with such thinking. We can all agree that the disciples had no reason to fast because Jesus was present with them—the bridegroom was there with them—

Can the wedding guests fast while the bridegroom is with them? As long as they have the bridegroom with them, they cannot fast.” But what does Jesus mean when he says, “The days will come when the bridegroom is taken away from them, and then they will fast in that day?

Professor Grindheim argues that this is a matter of debate among scholars,

Scholars debate whether this refers to the relatively short period between Jesus’ death and his resurrection, or whether it refers to the long period between Jesus’ death and his second coming (699).

He spends the next several paragraphs in his article choosing and defending the former interpretation over the latter; that is, the bridegroom’s “taking away” refers to the three days in the tomb, not to the time between Jesus’ ascension and second coming. He references texts such as John 16:20 about the disciples’ grief being transformed into joy. He also appeals to the many promises of Jesus to be with his disciples (eg., Matt. 28:18–20). He claims that the mediated presence of Jesus to the church through the Holy Spirit (John 14:23; Eph. 2:21–22) is also reason to believe that the church age is not a time of mourning for Jesus’ presence, but rather a time of rejoicing because we are indeed experiencing Jesus’ presence. He further and finally builds one final evidence of Christ’s presence with his church—the fellowship of suffering. Grindheim doesn’t see suffering as a sign of Jesus’ absence, but rather as a sign of his presence and intimate fellowship with his people as they suffer for their identification with Jesus (Rom. 8:17; Phi. 3:10; Col. 1:24; 1 Pet. 4:13); further still, such suffering is a cause for joy, not a cause for mourning.

From Grindheim’s perspective, when Jesus calls for “new wine to be put in new wineskins,” he is saying that the old mindset (i.e., anticipating Messiah and eschatological realities) and old practices (twice weekly routine fasting) are obsolete. Now, as I believe Grindheim would say, we have a new mindset (i.e., new wine = the Messiah has come) that requires new practices (i.e., new wineskins = a new kind of fasting).

He then spreads his discussion beyond the Mark passage into the rest of the New Testament and a little bit into the early church writings and practice of fasting. Regarding the early church, he only quotes The Didache 8:1 (see above), which he dates much later than the most recent scholarship would suggest, which would place it possibly in the 40’s. Therefore, the Christian practice of regular fasting on two days a week is very early. It’s early practice doesn’t necessarily make it correct, but it can’t be dismissed because it is late, as Grindheim seems to suggest. It is also demonstrable that a period of fasting accompanied the act of baptism (Did. 7:4).

He takes on several NT texts on fasting (Matt. 4:2; 6:16–18; Col. 2:20–23; Acts 9:9; 13:2–3; 14:23). Regarding the temptation of Jesus, he argues that the 40 day fast is not example for us to follow, but rather a unique undertaking by Jesus to prepare himself to be the second Adam and faithfully endure the temptations of the devil and continue his Messianic mission. In Matthew 6, Jesus is giving instruction about the practice of spiritual disciplines and the danger of hypocrisy. Grindheim is too strong when he writes, “Jesus’ point is not to instruct his disciples to fast, but to warn them against hypocrisy” (703). No, Jesus isn’t teaching them to fast; he assumes that they will fast, so much so that he commands them how to do it regularly without being hypocrites. Paul in Colossians is not directly dismissing fasting as a practice; rather he is dismissing wrong motives behind fasting as a practice—self-imposed piety has no value in opposing self-indulgence. Paul is clear in Romans and Galatians that what the law could not accomplish through the sinful flesh, God himself has accomplished through his Son and by the Spirit. The motive of fasting must be a desire for the control of the Spirit over the flesh, a desire for the word of Christ to dwell in us richly and to become our “food.” Paul’s own practice of fasting in Acts 9:9; 13:2–3; and 14:23 finally forces Grindheim to admit that there are some, exceptional occasions when fasting is legitimate and appropriate for the Christian and the church.

However, in the very next paragraph, Professor Grindheim goes on to say,

The baseline for Christian piety must therefore be that fasting is not an appropriate expression of Christian devotion to the Lord. NT differs from OT piety in that God has now come near in his Son and through his Holy Spirit. Even though believers long for the Second Coming of Christ and the visible manifestation of his rule (Matt. 6:10; 1 Cor. 16:22; Rev. 22:20), NT piety is characterized by intimacy, not distance. The predominant sentiment of believers living in the age of fulfillment is joy, not grief (Phi. 3:1; 4:4–7; 1 Thess. 5:16). They therefore have no occasion for fasting (705).

My difficulty with Grindheim is that he struggles to see how joy and fasting can be in continuity and continuation into this new age—a new age to which I feel he attributes too much fulfillment, nearly eliminating some forms of Christian practice and piety. The dominant message of the NT writers is that the kingdom is both already and not yet here, which he finally does acknowledge at the end of his article,

The Christian fulfillment of fasting should therefore be to spread the joy of Christ’s presence and to demonstrate it in action by sharing with the needy (cf. Isa. 58:3–7). Nevertheless, while joy has replaced fasting as a habitual expression of Christian piety, fasting is not prohibited in the NT. Christian experience is still characterized by the tension between the already and the not yet, between the realized and future eschatology. Normal Christian experience will therefore still have room and need for other expressions than manifestations of joy (parentheses mine, 707).

It would be interesting to know whether or not Grindheim feels we should pray habitually or give offerings habitually, or only exceptionally? Proportionately, prayer is spoken of far more in the NT than fasting, and I think that guides us some in our practice of spiritual disciplines. No one disagrees that Mark 2:18–20 is transforming the way that we must think about and practice fasting. It must not become religious ritual that seeks the reward of other religious people, and it’s motive and practice must adjust to the realities of Christ’s work in death and resurrection. It must come—whether habitually or exceptionally—out of the joy and longing we have because of and for Christ. And there is no reason to be rigid in our practice of the discipline, but rather a practice rising from our love and liberty. Isaiah, the OT prophet understood these things,

“Why have we fasted, and you see it not? Why have we humbled ourselves, and you take no knowledge of it?” Behold, in the day of your fast you seek your own pleasure, and oppress all your workers. Behold, you fast only to quarrel and to fight and to hit with a wicked fist. Fasting like yours this day will not make your voice to be heard on high. Is such the fast that I choose, a day for a person to oppress himself? Is it to bow down his head like a reed, and to spread sackcloth and ashes under him? Will you call this a fast, and a day acceptable to the LORD?

Is not this the fast that I choose: to loose the bonds of wickedness, to undo the straps of the yoke, to let the oppressed go free, and to break every yoke? Is it not to share your bread with the hungry and bring the homeless poor into your house; when you see the naked, to cover him, and not to hide yourself from your own flesh? (Isaiah 58:3–7).

So what about you? Have you ever fasted before? What is your motivation to fast? Do your motivations sync with the NT transformation of fasting in light of Jesus’ person and work? What are the exceptional times that you feel require a season of fasting? Do you think habitual fasting is appropriate sometimes? If so when, and how do you prevent it from becoming an empty ritual? May the joy of the Lord become your utmost hunger, and may the Lord renew your minds to discover his aim for you in Christ, using every detail of your life, until the kingdom fully and finally comes.

Lent and Repentance in the Spiritual Life

A Historical Look at the Season of Lent

On Wednesday, we entered the 40-day journey toward Easter weekend. This period has historically been referred to as Lent. Earle E. Cairns in Christianity through the Centuries writes about the origin of the Lenten season,

The emergence of a cycle of feasts in the church year may be noted in this era (100–313 A.D.). Easter, originating in the application of the Jewish Passover to the resurrection of Christ, seems to have been the earliest of the festivals. Not until after 350 was Christmas adopted in the West as a Christian festival and purged of its pagan elements. Lent, a forty-day period of penitence and restraint on bodily appetites preceding Easter, had been accepted earlier as a part of the churches’ cycle of worship before the adoption of Christmas (116, parentheses mine).

In Devotions for Lent from the Mosaic Study Bible (https://www.bible.com/reading-plans/105-devotions-for-lent-from-holy-bible-mosaic), the Introduction provides us with both the aim and the fit of Lent into the rhythm of the Christian annual calendar,

Lent is the season when Christians have historically prepared their hearts for Easter with reflection, repentance, and prayer. Lent begins with Ash Wednesday and proceeds for forty days, culminating in Good Friday and Holy Saturday. Since Sundays are weekly celebrations of the resurrection of Jesus, the six Sundays in Lent are not counted as part of the forty-day season. Many Christians choose to fast throughout the season of Lent, but the focus is not so much on depriving themselves of something as it is on devoting themselves to God and his purposes in the world.

Here is a look at the Christian calendar and Lent’s place in the mix:

2015–2016 Christian Calendar

Seasons Beginning Dates Purpose
Advent November 29, 2015 Focuses on the anticipation of God’s coming into the world, both in the incarnation and at Christ’s 2nd coming
Christmas December 25th, 2015 Concentrates on the birth of Christ
Epiphany January 6th, 2016 Centers itself in the light of God’s presence shining in the world
Lent February 10, 2016 Directs our attention toward human mortality, sin, and God’s gracious solution in Christ
Easter March 27, 2016 Celebrates resurrection life in Christ
Ascension May 5th, 2016 Turns attention to the benefits toward the believer because of Christ’s ascension to the Father
Pentecost May 15th, 2016 Helps us to remember and participate in the ongoing activity of the Holy Spirit in the world

There are times in the history of the church, particularly during the Middle Ages, that the seasons of the Christian calendar have served to restrain or even abuse real spiritual growth. A Young Calvinist blogger named Justin Smidstra notes,

Many of us may not have paid much attention to this, since the church year and the “liturgical seasons” do not play a very large role in the Reformed churches and many other Protestant churches as well. There are some historic and sound reasons for this. During the middle ages the observance of Lent became an excessive practice, which emphasized works righteousness, and came to be associated with all sorts of superstitious beliefs. The Reformers condemned these abuses and for this reason rejected most of the Lenten practices of their day, such as the mandatory forty day fast. We do not dispute their wisdom in this.

Certainly the Puritan in us shouts, “Lent is everyday. Easter is everyday. Incarnation is everyday. We do not need a seasonal calendar; rather we preach the full gospel to ourselves and others daily.”

So, what do we do with Lent and the rest of the seasons? To practice, or not to practice? I personally think there is a balance that can be found. The benefits of the Christian calendar are its organization, its simplicity, and its strict focus on the gospel of Jesus Christ. The dangers of the Christian calendar are those about which the early Reformers warn—developing a mindset that grace from God is somehow gained or missed depending on my faithfulness to the calendar or superstitious beliefs becoming attached to the practice. However, the former can be remedied by faithful teaching about saving grace coming to us through Christ’s faithful work alone. The latter problem of superstition has always been a problem the church has faced. As early as the days of the papyrus copies of the New Testament, we have evidence that Christians would copy for themselves a portion of the Gospels or Acts where healing, miracles, or great power was demonstrated by Jesus or the apostles. They would “roll it up” and keep it with them as an amulet, which they believed would keep them free from sickness, demons, and other dangers. The cure for superstition isn’t necessarily an avoidance of the Calendar, nor an avoidance of the Scriptures, but rather quality discipleship in the truths and doctrines of Scripture for the Christian life.

I have participated in Lent some years and not other years. There is no law or command in Scripture that demands such participation. In fact, Paul writes in Colossians 2:16–17, “Therefore let no one pass judgment on you in questions of food and drink, or with regard to a festival or a new moon or a Sabbath. These are a shadow of the things to come, but the substance belongs to Christ.” That is to say, all festivals, special days, and spiritual disciplines with food and drink find their substance in Christ. He is the fulfillment of all these things, the end of them if you will. Therefore, the Puritans and Reformers have a point. However, I would say that Paul is not condemning the practice of festivals and the like, rather he is saying that we should not pass judgment on one another or from one church to another regarding these things. Brothers and sisters, we are free to gather and worship Christ in all the fullness of truth and love that we can muster by the Spirit’s help. Calendar or no calendar.

Lent Reminds Us to Practice Repentance and Repentance Is Good

Wherever you find yourself traditionally this Lenten season, I hope you will embrace a regular practice of repentance. It is good to question the appetites of the sinful flesh and to bring them under the control of the Spirit, be it through fasting, prayer and meditation on the Scriptures, silence, or solitude. Romans 6:11 teaches us, “So you also must consider yourselves dead to sin and alive to God in Christ Jesus.” As you practice the “mortification of your sins” in Christ’s death, also remember the hope and life and power we have because Christ has risen from the dead. For we need not only confession and repentance, but resurrection power to break the chains of slavery that sin has had over us.

Allow me to point you to two places in Scripture that can guide you in the development of regular rhythms of repentance. Let me also call attention to this. It is very appropriate to seek both community repentance and personal repentance from God. For example, our nation needs the gift of repentance from God. The churches in our nation need the gift of repentance from God—both for past sins of commission and omission and for present sins. For this community-approach toward repentance, I turn to Daniel 9:1–23. I have broken down this passage on repentance into 7 parts:

  • The Provocation to Repentance (vv.1–2) — The word of God provokes repentance as it reveals truth and grace to us.
  • The Posture of Repentance (v. 3) — Genuine repentance seems to be marked by common postures: prayer, fasting, lament (sackcloth and ashes), pleas for mercy.
  • The Confession of Repentance (vv. 4–6) — The confession acknowledges God’s faithfulness and love while it also agrees with God about our sinful deeds and our unwillingness to listen to his word. Notice the community and personal aspects in Daniel’s use of the personal plural pronouns.
  • The Humility of Repentance (vv. 7–12) — Humility is honest. It lacks prideful attempts to justify. Daniel humbly admits his and the people’s need for the righteousness, mercy, and forgiveness that belong to the Lord and admits their ownership of the shame they have brought on themselves.
  • The Resistance to Repentance (vv. 13–15) — While this continues Daniel’s humility, it is specifically highlighting their resistance to “entreat the favor of the Lord.” There is a fight that must take place within repentance. We must fight against resistance and submission to it.
  • The Petition of Repentance (vv. 16–19) — Here Daniel finds what we must all find in the process of repentance—a petition based in the will of God for his own glory. Repentance happens when we truly desire God’s will above our own. In the New Testament, we call this dying to self and coming alive unto God. Notice how many times Daniel uses the pronoun “your.” In a quick look in my ESV Bible, I counted 16. He recognizes that God is both the source of the chastisement and the source of their healing.
  • The Answer to Repentance (vv. 20–23) — Remember, Daniel started praying because of a prophecy of Jeremiah that provoked him (v. 2). God answers Daniel’s repentance with further insight and revelation into his plan and will. Notice that Daniel’s prayer was heard from the very beginning (v. 23). The answer confirmed God’s love for him, and brought him further understanding.

The second place in Scripture to which I direct you is the temptation of Jesus in the Gospels (Matthew 4:1–11; Mark 1:12–13; Luke 4:1–13; cf. Heb. 2:18; 4:15). Jesus’ forty days and forty nights of fasting and facing the Tempter is typically thought to be the foundation for the 40-day period of Lent. Consider the opportunities for repentance based upon Jesus’ faithfulness:

  • Opportunity #1: Is the Word of God Sufficient to Me (Mt. 4:1–4)?
  • Opportunity #2: Do I Fear God in Such a Way That Avoids Presumptuous Testing of God in My Decision Making (Mt. 4:5–7)?
  • Opportunity #3: Do I Worship God with Submissive Service to His Plan for My Life (Mt. 4:8–11)?

I hope that this has challenged you to feel the necessity of a regular rhythm and seeking of repentance. Repentance is a treasure and a gift from God. May this treasure be yours and mine today and in the days ahead.

In Christ,

Pastor Rex