After worrying about our bags being overweight with all of our food and clothes for the next 16 days, the man at the counter did not even weigh our bags. They did not even charge us at check-in for them. So, hopefully they make it to where they need to go! After Deb and I bought our caffeine for the night, we boarded the plane at 11:55 P.M. All went well and we left right around 12:35 A.M., to begin our 6 hour journey to Anchorage, Alaska. As the plane loaded, we came to realize that we were the only two people in our row, so we were able to have the middle seat open and spread out.
Despite the heavy turbulence in the air, we were both got around three to four hours of sleep. This was a blessing considering the future time change we were going to confront and the flight connection. The flight into Anchorage was beautiful and we learned fast that their “nighttime” was still light. CRAZY!
We decided to get some breakfast and sit down and look at the view outside of the window until our boarding time at 6:30. Little did we know that there was heavy fog where our plane was coming from which caused us a delay…wait no make that a cancelation of our morning flight. We had to reschedule for a later flight at 6:00 P.M. As we were waiting in line we met a guy who is going out to fish for the summer. He came from California and turned out to be meeting a bunch of Christian men to fish with all summer. He had to spend two nights in the airport without any family or friends. Wow, God works in mysterious ways we were able to take him out to lunch and a walk around Anchorage. He says he was so thankful he met us because he was starting to get frustrated.
Finally when 6:30 rolled around we were able to board our plane and take off for King Salmon. From there we found John and Carrol who picked us up from the airport. We were then taken to the KAKN radio station, which is where we would sleep every night. Thank you for all of the prayers! God Bless.
I had the privilege to spend 3 weeks in Athens, Greece last summer as part of a team whose task was to digitize thousands of pages of ancient manuscripts at the National Library in Athens. I was also able to find some time to visit many of the ancient ruins in Athens. I am reminded today of one ancient contest that was popular throughout Greece. You’ll think of the Olympic torch that we continue to watch today in the summer Olympics. Our modern ceremonial (rather than competitive) adaptation, ironically enough, began in the 1936 Summer Games in Berlin under Adolf Hitler, who had a fascination with ancient empires and their activities. In ancient times, the torch carrying was actually a ceremony and a competition between the 10 Athenian tribes. Contestants would race with a torch in one hand and many times a shield in the other, from one sacred site to another, at night, as the main event of various festivals. A contestant or team of contestants, in some cases, won the race by arriving first at the designated finish with the torch still aflame. If the flame were to ever extinguish, then the runner or team disqualified itself. Hence, this is why some of the runners carried a shield—to guard the flame from opposing forces that may extinguish it. By ancient accounts, it was a daring, race. I read in one place that it could be a distance up to two miles. In Greek, the race was called the λαμπαδηδρομία or the “Torch Race.” Lampa meaning torch and dromia from the word for a race circuit or course. So, to win the Torch Race, you had to run hard; you had to run smart; you had to run together; and you had to run to finish.
The Race of Life
One ancient author reflecting near the end of his life wrote, “I have struggled/fought the good/worthy struggle; I have finished the race course; I have guarded the faith” (2 Timothy 4:7). This particular writer saw himself as a servant to his particular God, and in the previous context, he wrote that his life was like a drink offering, being poured out in service. Seeing that only drops of life remained, he reflected on his struggle, his race, and his faith. He described his struggle or fight as good, excellent, or useful. Opposition is implied. According to the University of Penn, another fascinating feature of the Torch Race is that if those who had lost the flame of their torch could overtake a runner who still possessed his torch, the torch would have to be surrendered to the prevailing runner. For these runners, the struggle was real. It took great skill and fight to endure.
Author Irving Stone has spent a lifetime studying greatness, writing novelized biographies of such men as Michelangelo and Vincent van Gogh. Stone was once asked if he had found a thread that runs through the lives of these exceptional people. He said,
I write about people who sometime in their life. . . have a vision or dream of something that should be accomplished . . . and they go to work. They are beaten over the head, knocked down, vilified and for years they get nowhere. But every time they’re knocked down they stand up. You cannot destroy these people. And at the end of their lives they’ve accomplished some modest part of what they set out to do. (Crossroads, Issue No. 7, p. 18.)
The author next states that he had finished his race course. It’s interesting to me that he didn’t use any of the possible Greek words that mean “to win” or “to gain victory.” This author demonstrates knowledge of such vocabulary in his other writings, but here he chooses the verb “to finish.” Perhaps, he chooses this word to maintain the metaphor of pouring out his life in service. Winning doesn’t quite fit as well as finishing or completing.
Two men among several traveled 674 miles from Nenana to Nome, Alaska in the 1925 serum run known as the Great Race of Mercy. They aimed to deliver medicine to a large diphtheria epidemic. Leonhard Seppala and his lead dog Togo covered the most hazardous and longest stretch of 91 miles, and the Norwegian, Gunnar Kaasen, and his lead dog Balto arrived on Front Street in Nome on February 2 at 5:30 a.m., just five and a half days later. These teams were trying to finish their race in service to others.
Lastly, the author writes that he has guarded the faith. The Torch Race image of the runner using his shield to guard and protect the flame of his torch. Without a lit torch at the end, a runner could not complete the Torch Race. The faith for this particular author referred to the total body of belief that he held concerning the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. The faith that he guarded was his most precious, most valuable possession.
He believed that his fight, his race, and his aflame faith would receive a crown from the one who had the true worth and authority to reward contestants. At the end of the Torch Race, the victor received a major award. I read one account where I believe the victor received one bull and 100 drachma ($2500).
Season of Accomplishment
In all seriousness, my hope is that this graduation season encourages you on to more and greater things. No doubt you have fought to get here, and I hope that the struggle has proved useful for the next arena. Many of you reading this have finished and completed several years of school and coursework, and as someone who has spent many years in school, that is always something worth celebrating! I hope too that you have guarded something in your finishing. Like this ancient author, I hope that you too have kept the integrity of your faith aflame. Regardless of your background, I think that we can all agree that there are precious things, like faith, integrity, honesty, hope, peace, and so on, that must accompany us to the finished line in order to make the finish line all that it is meant to be.
So, I pray now that you will endure the struggle ahead—looking for the meaning and the profit of the struggle, determine to finish your race, and figure out the most precious things in life and guard those things as you go. And as you pour out your life, may your reward be blessed.
The song titled “I’ve Been Everywhere” sparks a connection for most to Johnny Cash. Cash recorded the song in 1996. However, the song has a long history and broad impact. It was originally written by Geoff Mack, an Australian country singer, in 1959 and made popular by Lucky Starr in 1962. In the U.S.A., the song was made popular first by Hank Snow (1962), then Lynn Anderson (1970), long before Johnny Cash gave it a go. In addition to North America and Australia, the song also took flight in New Zealand, Great Britain, Ireland, parts of Asia, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Germany, and a number of other places. Literally, the song has been everywhere (Yes, I did use wikipedia for this info ;-)).
In his day, Abram was a globetrotter. His family’s journey to follow the Lord (cf. Josh. 24:2; Gen. 31:53) took them on a +1,000 mile journey from the Ur of the Chaldeans to the land of Canaan, and eventually into Egypt and back to Canaan. We know that there was a stop at Haran along the way (11:31–32), where Terah spent his final days. In Haran, Abram received the call from the Lord, apparently the God of his father Terah, to leave his familiar land, relatives, and reputation and trust the Lord to give him a new land, a new people, and a new reputation. (12:1–2). The Lord then commanded him to be a blessing, promising that he would bless those who blessed Abram, curse those who took Abram too lightly, and that in him, the Lord would bless all the families of the earth. Later on as Scripture unfolds (cf. Matthew 1; Luke 3; Romans 4; Galatians 3–4), we learn that Jesus Christ is the divine aim of this promise, in whom God would succeed in bringing blessing to all the families of the earth.
Returning to Genesis 12:4–9, we find an example of obedient faith in Abram, in spite of tremendous obstacles—Sarah’s barrenness (11:30), Abram’s age (12:4), the pagan religion that permeated Canaan (12:6), and later on a forbidding famine (12:9). Not only do we see obedient faith in his leaving and clinging to the new things God promised him, but also we see two expressions of faith as he travels through the land of Canaan.
First, Abram worshiped God in a hostile environment. While he was surrounded by people who worshiped other so-called gods, Abram built altars in their midst as visible markers and expressions of his faith in the Lord. He built altars in 12:7 and in 12:8. The altar he built in Shechem, near the oak of Moreh, is significant for a number of reasons. First, he built it in response to God appearing to him. It marked God’s confirmation of his verbal calling to Abram while he was in Haran. Second, his worship was significant because of what the Lord promised—offspring and land—neither of which Abram had in his possession at that time. Third, his altar was significant because of where he built it. The oak of Moreh was most likely the location of a Canaanite shrine of worship. Abram was expressing his faith in the Lord in a very bold way. Lastly, his worship is significant because this place would not be forgotten by his descendants. His worship became legendary. Joshua would choose this place to call Israel to covenant renewal with the Lord at this same location (Josh. 24). The location of Abram’s second altar—between Bethel and Ai—would also not be far from the Israelite reader’s mind, as they recalled significant events that unfolded in those cities. Bethel, “the house of God,” was where Jacob had his dream (28:10–22) and became a place of covenant renewal for him (35:1–15). Ai recalls the battle that stifled Israel’s confident conquest due to disobedience and led to another time of covenant renewal (Joshua 7–8).
Second, Abram not only worshiped the Lord, but he also proclaimed the name of the Lord. This is most likely the meaning of the phrase “called upon the name of the Lord” in 12:8. Two commentators—Cassuto and Ross—believe that Abram had a history of proselytizing even before this. They understand the phrase “the people that they had acquired” in 12:5 to refer to proselytes, not to slaves or servants, because of the use of the Hebrew word nepes for “people.”
The beginning of Abram’s story is remarkable. It’s no wonder that Israel and the Church look to him as the quintessential father of faith. He left the familiar. He believed in the face of amazing obstacles. God spoke; Abram obeyed. He worshiped openly. He proclaimed so that others knew the Lord. He did all of this in a hostile environment and as he waited for God to accomplish what was yet unseen to him. Saint Augustine is quoted as having said,
God does not expect us to submit our faith to him without reason, but the very limits of our reason make faith a necessity.
Now, we are not Abram. Abram is a unique, one-of-a-kind figure in Scripture. If you don’t think so, when was the last time God asked you to do what he asked Abram to do in Genesis 22? The answer is never! Nor would he. God was doing something special in and through Abram. Something that you and I benefit from by being found in Christ—the long-awaited “seed of Abraham” (Romans 4; Galatians 3–4). We also benefit from Abram’s example in spiritual living. It is impossible to please God—no matter who you are—without faith. Genuine faith obeys God’s word. Faith many times forces us to leave what is familiar to meet and serve God in something new. It has been said that the African impala can jump to a height of over 10 feet and cover a distance of nearly 35 feet in a single bound! Yet these amazing animals can be kept in an enclosure in a zoo with even a short, solid wall. The animals will not jump if they cannot see where their feet will fall. There are always obstacles to trusting God—infertility, age, health, finances, hostile work or family environments, foggy futures, unexpected catastrophes. Abram shows us how to worship and proclaim the name of the Lord by faith, when the solutions and provisions are still distant and haven’t yet taken shape.
We have an exciting two months ahead of us at West Lisbon Church in the area of World Missions. This Sunday evening, February 12th at 6pm, Mark and Stephanie Dodrill will be with us at Family Mission Fellowship to share about Youth for Christ’s work in Barcelona, Spain and about their home assignment. It is also exciting because West Lisbon is sending a team to work with Mark and Stephanie in Spain this summer! By the way, there is still one spot available on the Destination: Spain team.
Then in March, the Missions Committee will host our annual Missions Conference on March 18–19th. Our guest speaker for the weekend is Dr. Greg Parsons. Greg is the current Director of Global Connections at Frontier Ventures. Frontier describes itself in this way:
We are a community of dreamers and doers who long to see Jesus worshipped in the earth’s darkest corners.
Pretty awesome. Greg is also engaged in the leadership of the Perspectives on the World Christian Movement. If this guy doesn’t fan the flame of world missions in your soul . . . you may want to check your pulse!!
In light of all of these exciting learning and serving experiences before us, I thought that I would spend the next two Messenger articles on the Great Commission of Matthew 28:16–20. In this month’s edition, we’ll examine the setting of Jesus’ commission. Next month, we’ll take a look at the words of Jesus’ commission.
Matthew 28:16–17 (ESV)
Now the eleven disciples went to Galilee, to the mountain to which Jesus had directed them. And when they saw him they worshiped him, but some doubted.
The Setting of the Great Commission
“The Great Commission” as a title for Matthew 28:16–20 may have its origin in the first decade of the 1900s. It may have first appeared as a title for this text in the Scofield Reference Bible of 1909. Since then, it has enjoyed a place of prominence among the commissioning passages of the New Testament (e.g., Luke 24:44–49; Acts 1:8). Let’s take a look at the setting of the commission that precedes the words of the commission.
First, the people of the commission are described. The description of the group shocks the reader of Matthew’s commission passage. It is the “eleven.” The absence of one of the twelve recalls the evil and fall of Judas—one who had spent so much time with Jesus, betrayed him and was lost. We are soberly reminded by the word “eleven” that simply being present and in the crowd associated with Jesus does not correlate to genuine loyalty and discipleship. This does not mean—as some falsely presume—that the commission was ONLY for the eleven. Remember, Matthew wrote his Gospel with a Christian community in mind, who would receive and act upon his retelling of the life and work of Jesus Christ. The commission began with the eleven, but the text assumes that the church of all ages will take up this cause.
Second, the place of the commission is described. Jesus had told them that he himself would go ahead of them and meet them in Galilee after he was resurrected (Matthew 26:30–32; 28:10). After the Passover festival had finished, the disciples appeared to have returned home to Galilee to meet Jesus (see also John 20:26–21:14). As the time for his ascension drew near, it seems that they had returned to Jerusalem (Acts 1:1–11). Perhaps more significant, Matthew mentions that their meeting took place on “the mountain to which Jesus had directed them.” Mountaintop-experiences are an important theme in the Gospel of Matthew. Consider all that happened on mountains:
Teaching—Sermon on the Mount (5:1ff)
Transfiguration (17:1, 9)
Triumphal Entry Prep (21:1)
Teaching—Olivet Discourse (24:3)
And now, Jesus calls his eleven disciples to the mountain for their commissioning.
Lastly, the faith of the commissioned is described. Notice that Matthew describes the presence of both worship AND doubt. It helps to explore this concept within Matthew’s gospel to find out what he means by this. For example, James seems to teach that there is a sense in which faith and doubt cannot coexist (e.g., 1:6–8). Jude, however, teaches us to be merciful to doubters (v. 22). Paul in Romans warns about doubts with regard to conscious and ethical decisions (14:23). So, context seems to be key. Clearly, doubt is a danger to the spiritual life if it persists, pervades, and is permanent; however, don’t we all struggle with some degree of doubt? I think this is where Matthew’s “theology” of doubt is helpful to us. Imagine the relationship of faith and doubt in Matthew’s gospel like a cup, where the empty space represents “Doubt” and the filled space represents “Faith”:
Throughout the Gospel of Matthew is what Grant Osborne calls the motif of “little faith.” Check out 6:30; 8:26; 14:31; 16:8. I tend to agree with Osborne that what is being described here in Matthew 28:17 by the concept of doubt in the midst of worship is simply another way of describing the theme of “little faith” that has been a regular description of Jesus’ disciples throughout the book. Put simply, their faith isn’t mature yet. They have faith, but it’s small. It is largely an immature faith at this point. The Holy Spirit and their witnessing will help to grow their faith, so that in time their faith may look something like this:
I’m not sure that doubt is ever totally eliminated from the spiritual life. James, Paul, and Jude exhort us about doubt for exactly this reason. However, I do think that faith and trust in God grows throughout the spiritual life. But come back with me to the setting of Jesus’ commissioning in Matthew 28:17. Is it really possible that the resurrected Jesus is about to entrust the expansion of his kingdom and the establishment of his church to eleven or so worshippers who are having doubts? Well, that’s certainly what the text says, isn’t it?
What does that mean for you? Have you been thinking that all of your doubts have to be gone before you effectively serve Jesus? Do you feel that you have to possess all of the answers before you can be sent to make disciples? Jesus certainly didn’t expect this of his original eleven. Why do you think he expects it of you? Fellow Christian, don’t allow your “little faith” to cause you to do “little disciple-making.” As we see in the book of Acts, the experience of the Holy Spirit’s ministry as we witness and make disciples increases our faith. Part of the excitement and fun of making disciples is becoming learners of Jesus together. I hope you’ll put your little faith to work in the Great Commission. Go on; step out of the boat and into the Great Commission! Next time, we’ll see that Jesus tells us everything our little faith needs to thrive in Christ’s commission.
Creation. Evolution. Ancient and Modern people have observe(d) the universe. Above, you’ll see the ancient Hebrew conception of the universe. The ancient Hebrews were also surrounded by various and diverse cultural and theological narratives about the origin of all things. In our day, there are also many opinions — some emphasize theology, some emphasize science, some trying to harmonize the two — regarding the origin of the universe. I hope that the notes and resources shared below assist you in gaining a better grasp at what is being said in the early chapters of Genesis.
Helpful Definitions for Creation and Evolution
It is the gradual development of something, especially from a simple to a more complex form. Micro-evolution is evolutionary change within a species or small group of organisms, especially over a short period. Macro-evolution is major evolutionary transition from one type of organism to another occurring at the level of the species and higher taxa.
The process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring is called natural selection. The theory of its action was first fully expounded by Charles Darwin and is now believed to be the main process that brings about evolution. If I understand it correctly, atheistic evolutionists would say that natural selection is the “mind” behind evolution. However, theistic evolutionists would believe that God is the “mind” behind the use of natural selection in the natural processes of evolution.
Creation is the bringing into existence of the universe, especially when regarded as an act of God ex nihilo (“out of nothing”).
It is the original evolution of life or living organisms from inorganic or inanimate substances. Spontaneous Generation was one hypothesis of abiogenesis. This is the supposed production of living organisms from nonliving matter, as inferred from the apparent appearance of life in some supposedly sterile environments. Dismissed in 18th century. Biopoiesis is a more recent articulation of abiogenesis, which is a process by which living organisms are thought to develop from nonliving matter, and the basis of a theory on the origin of life on Earth. According to this theory, conditions were such that, at one time in Earth’s history, life was created from nonliving material, probably in the sea, which contained the necessary chemicals. During this process, molecules slowly grouped, then regrouped, forming ever more efficient means for energy transformation and becoming capable of reproduction.
Epistemology is the study of how humans know things, or acquire knowledge. The Christian understand both science and revelation to be sources of human knowledge.
The universe is believed to be one way in which God has chosen to make himself and certain attributes known to all people.
The Bible, the incarnation of Jesus Christ, miracles are special ways in which God has chosen to make himself known to people at various places and at various times. We learn many more specifics about God and his nature through special revelation.
Christian Views on Origins and Creation
God created the universe and everything in it by means of natural processes. See BioLogos for detailed articles and videos explaining this view.
God intends the reader of Scripture and Creation to understand an unspecified but implied “Gap” between Genesis 1:1 and Genesis 1:2. A variation of this theory is called the Restoration Theory. The Scofield Reference Bible study notes explain the Gap Theory, and Dr. Tony Evans articulates the Restoration Theory in his writings and sermons on Spiritual Warfare. Genesis 1:2 describes the earth as an unfurnished, unsightly, wasteland shrouded in darkness. Gap Theory proponents ascribe this to the fall of Satan and its effect upon the earth.
The term “day” in Genesis 1 represents ages or eras of creation rather than literal 24-hour days.
God created the universe and everything in it with apparent age. As the wine Jesus created from water in John 2 had apparent age, so then did the universe come into being with maturity.
Punctuated 24-Hour Theory
While the term “day” is a literal, 24-hour day, the Punctuated Theory teaches that there were unspecified “gaps” between each day of creation.
Scientific Creationism aims to provide scientific support for the literal reading of the narrative of Genesis 1 and holds that the earth is young (e.g., approximately 10,000 or so years old). Henry Morris and the group Answers in Genesis are two of the leading proponents of this view.
This view, like the one previously mentioned, holds to a straightforward reading of Genesis 1. “Day” means a literal 24-hour day. It does not differ significantly from the previous view. Perhaps, they should be combined. One variation that may occur is that Scientific Creationism may at times look at its particular interpretation of scientific data in order to arrive at the young earth, 24-hour view; whereas, the 24-hour interpretation tries to start with Scripture.
Some early church writers such as Augustine and Origen believed that God created the universe virtually instantaneously, wondering something like, “Why would it take God a whole day to create the universe by the power of his word?” Therefore, the “day” in Genesis 1 was not literal for them, but different than many Christians today who look to “add” time to the “day,” instead they sought to “shrink” the day to an instant.
This view also attempts to start with Scripture and work out toward explanation of origins and creation. It views the “days” of creation as providing a framework for understanding creations kingdoms and their respective kings. Therefore, it does not understand the intent of the original author as trying to give us a literal rendering of the origin of the universe, but rather than chronology, the aim of Genesis 1 is to give the theological ordering of the creation.
This interesting view, represented most recently by John H. Sailhamer, teaches that the creation of the universe is recorded in Genesis 1:1. The verses following detail God’s creation of Eden and his preparation of it for his people. Theologically, “Eden” continues to function throughout the story of the Bible as the place of blessing to which God is calling his people to return. It shares similarities with the Gap Theory. The “place of blessing” theme can be seen and realized in God’s call of Israel to the promised land and in God’s call of the church into the heavenly city, the new Jerusalem.
John Walton’s works The Lost World of Genesis One and Genesis 1 As Ancient Cosmology are also theological renderings of Genesis 1. He claims that Genesis 1 describes God creating a temple for himself on the earth, which he calls the garden of Eden. This temple theme can be traced throughout Scripture — the tabernacle, the temple, the church, and finally a “return to Eden” in the new heaven and new earth.
Essential Considerations for the Christian
Christians everywhere for all times have believed that the God of the Bible is the “great Cause” of the universe. The Apostles’ Creed says, “We believe in God the Father almighty, Creator of heaven and earth.” We must hold to God as Creator.
Humanity is God’s special, most unique creation. A linguistic analysis of Genesis 1, such as the one performed by Robert Bergen in the book Do Historical Matters Matter to Faith?, reveals that the author’s clear intention is to cause the reader to focus on verses 24–31 as the central episode of the narrative. The rest of Scripture affirms the uniqueness of humanity among created things. Therefore, the Christian’s view of origins and creation—whatever it may be—must also affirm the unique place of humanity in God’s creation purposes. I believe this also carries significant ethical implications.
The one man-sin-death theme is carefully woven through the entire biblical narrative. Whether Adam is the literal first man or is the divinely appointed federal head of humanity, the Christian must somehow maintain this theme in his or her view of origins and creation. Further and in my opinion, the most difficult harmonization between Christian theology and evolutionary theory is the role of death in each narrative. There seems to be no way to interpret death as a positive feature or experience in the biblical story. It is an enemy to be overcome by resurrection. Yet, in typical evolutionary theory, death is a vehicle of positive process and development. To some, it is something that helps creation develop and flourish; to others, it is in the very least necessary, even if unpleasant.
The Bible is authoritative, and I believe in the inerrancy of Scripture, so long as such a view of inerrancy is informed with regard to literary genres and their required needs for interpretation. The church everywhere and for all times has always believed in the authority of the Scriptures. So, how does today’s Christian manage the authority of Scripture with the authority of Science? It is a delicate walk; yet I believe that there is a way to do it, even to find harmony between the two. I have to, because I believe the same God who revealed himself in the Bible is the same God who makes himself known in study of the universe. May we be humble and astounded by the greatness of our God in our pursuit and study of his world and his word.
Epistle of James: Godly Living in an Ungodly World
On Sunday, we concluded our 5-month study of the Epistle of James. What a challenging message! We explored various themes for Godly Living in an Ungodly World. Here, I am providing the title to each sermon, and the basic outline that accompanied each sermon. I hope you are able to use this in your personal Bible study in James and perhaps as you have opportunities to lead others in the study of this book of the Bible.
Epistle of James: Sermon Series Titles and Outline
Introduction: Explore Godly Living in an Ungodly World (1:1)
The Author: James, the brother of Jesus Christ
The Date & Place of Writing: Mid-forties A.D. from Palestine
The Setting in Life: The difficulties, persecution, economic oppression, and community disharmony of Palestinian and scattered Jewish Christians in the 1st century Roman world.
The Form & Content of the Letter: The letter appears to be an edition of James’ own sermons covering such themes as suffering, wisdom, regeneration, a primitive Christology and eschatology echoing the teachings and sayings of Jesus himself, poverty & wealth, the tongue, and the relationship of law, grace, faith, and works of charity. James’ use of “my brothers” or “brothers” is a notable feature and guide throughout the letter.
The Godly Person Endures Tests Joyfully for Maturity (1:2–4).
Don’t Divert, but Direct Your Thinking During Tests (1:2–3).
Don’t Divert, But Develop Your Endurance During Tests (1:4).
The Godly Person Stays on Track to Maturity by Praying for Wisdom in Testing (1:5–8).
Two Problems May Derail Maturing Faith in Testing (1:5a, 6b–8).
Two Solutions Will Keep You on Track to Maturing Faith in Testing (1:5b–6a).
The Godly Person Calculates Life by Eternal, Not Temporal, Wealth (1:9–11).
The Poor Christian Must Look for Godly Glory Because of Eternal Renewal (1:9, 11).
The Rich Person Must Look for Godly Dependance Because of the Eternal Reversal (1:10–11).
The Godly Person Perseveres to Eternal Life through Testing by the New Birth (1:12–18).
Persevere to Eternal Life (1:12).
Persevere Through Internal Temptation (1:13–15).
Persevere by the Internal Transformation of the New Birth (1:16–18).
The Godly Person Heeds Wisdom’s Warning about Anger by Hospitably Hosting the Gospel (1:19–21).
Heed Wisdom’s Warning about Anger (1:19).
Hunger for God’s Justice Instead of Anger (1:20).
Hospitably Host the Regenerating Word for Transformation (1:21).
The Godly Person Perseveres Beyond Hearing to Doing the Word (1:22–25).
Beware Deception about the Regenerating Word (1:22).
Blessing Belongs to Those Who Persevere Beyond Hearing to Doing (1:23–25).
The Godly Person Awakes to Regenerate Religion (1:26–27).
Wake Up from Dead Religion (1:26).
Wake Up to Living Religion (1:27).
The Godly Person Pulverizes Partiality Out of His/Her Faith – Part 1 (2:1–7).
Heal Community Poverty (2:1–7).
Let Jesus Level You (2:1).
Obey Your Calling As a Good Judge (2:2–4).
Share God’s Burden for the Poor (2:5).
Evaluate Whose Side You’re On (2:6–7).
The Godly Person Pulverizes Partiality Out of His/Her Faith – Part 2 (2:8–13).
Heal Spiritual Poverty (2:8–13).
Live Under the Royal Law of Liberty (2:8–12).
Love Mercy More Than Strict Justice (2:13).
The Godly Person Has a Regenerate Faith That Extends Life (2:14–17).
Into Eternity (2:14).
To Others (2:15–16).
By Works (2:17).
The Godly Person Proves His/Her Faith Profession by Corresponding Works (2:18–26).
Close the Gap between Faith and Works (2:18).
Complete Your Faith (2:19–25).
Capture the Correlation (2:26).
The Godly Person Steers the Tongue to Arrive at Maturity by Limiting and Harnessing It (3:1–5a).
Limit Tongues That Teach (3:1–2).
Harness the Tongue’s Teaching Influence (3:3–5a).
The Godly Person Sparks a Revival of Words (3:5b–12).